Title: “The Necessity of the Future”

Description: This work in progress reads Fukuyama’s End of History in the context of an “international 1992,” including the coup in Haiti, the LA uprising, commemorations of the Columbian invasion, the Rio Earth Summit, and significant political turning points in southern Africa and Venezuela. Viewed from the present crisis, rather than the end of history, 1992 marks the necessity of the future.

Bio: Manu Karuka is the author of Empire’s Tracks: Indigenous Nations, Chinese Workers, and the Transcontinental Railroad (University of California Press). He is an assistant professor of American Studies at Barnard College.